The Garden Ant

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Insect: Lasius Niger

Identification:

2 to 3 mm, y black, elbowed antennae, large head, slender thorax, characteristicshin waist and long legs.

Origins and distribution:

Throughout Europe and common in the UK.

Habitat:

A wide range of locations, ant colonies can sometimes be in close proximity to human dwellings, entering buildings to forage for food. Sometimes nests can be found well inside factories with the ants exploiting proofing defects such as cracks in the building fabric.

Behaviour:

Very busy and highly active ants.

Breeding:

The Queen Ant lays a variable number of eggs, 3 to 4 weeks later legless grubs hatch, 3 weeks later larvae mature, 2 weeks after pupation adult ants emerge. Late summer winged and mature males leave nest ant mate and the males die whilst the females find new nest sites. Many thousands of ants live in a nest in a social hierarchy tending to various functions.

Food:

Sweet spillages, although outside of human habitations they have a wide food range including much organic matter.

Control:

  • Baiting
  • Insecticidal Spraying

 

 


 

 

Pharoah Ant

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Insect: Monomorium pharaonis

 

Introduction:

The Pharaoh ant took its name as a result from the mistaken belief of Linnaeus that this ant was one of the plagues of Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs. Pharaoh ants are believed to be from the African region. Pharaoh ants are found throughout Britain and they have been strongly linked in the spread of many disease pathogens.

Identification:

workers are up to 2mm, queens 3.6mm, males 3mm. They are pale straw yellow with darker head and abdomen, large head, and they have noticeable black eyes, with a twin bulge at waist section. The antenna is 12-segmented with a 3-segmented club, they are straight and not elbowed. The thorax does not have spines and its profile is unevenly rounded. The pedicel is 2- segmented. A stinger is present. The queens are with or without wings and are slightly darker in colour than workers. The males have wings and are black in colour.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and becoming fairly common in the UK and increasing in its range. They are tropical in origin (found in heated buildings in our climate). They are often found in hospitals, laundries & prisons universities, nursing homes, nurses accommodation and military camps. Their nests are a collection of individuals, often located in inaccessible areas. The species requires heated buildings to survive and it will exploit drains, ductings, cladded pipes and once established can spread quickly throughout any food manufacturing process with satellite nests.

Habitat:

Pharaoh ants prefer to nest in warm (25C), humid (80%) areas, which are near sources of food and /or water. Nests are usually located in inaccessible areas such as wall voids, behind skirting boards, in furniture, under floors and between linens. This is why the main colony is often difficult to locate for applying an insecticide. The workers range a great distance from the nest in search of food and water. They establish trails to food and water sources for others to follow. They commonly use pipes and services as a road system to travel through walls and between floors. Entire buildings may be infested with many different owners and tenants involved. Access is therefore not always possible or available and if cooperation is not available with all of those involved, failure in treatment is likely.

Behaviour:

This is a trail-making ant that can spread disease mechanically.

Biology:

The egg to adult stage is reached in 5-6 weeks. Colonies tend to be very large with the workers often numbering to several hundred thousand. There are usually several hundred reproductive females present in such a colony. Although winged reproductives are produced, there are no flights of swarmers and mating takes place within the nest. When a nest gets too large young queens and a number of support workers leave the colony and find alternative nesting sites. This is known as "budding" and the new colonies are called often called satellite nests. New nests can be formed by "budding" with as few as 5 workers, 10 pre-adults and one queen migrating from the original colony. Workers live about 10 weeks, with only up to 10% out foraging at any given time for food/water. Queens can live up to 12 months, and the males die within about 3-5 weeks after mating. Pharaoh ants are of particular importance in hospitals where they will enter wounds, enter in-use IV bottles, seek moisture from the mouths of sleeping infants, etc. Over a dozen pathogenic bacteria have been found on Pharaoh ants collected in hospitals. Queens lay approx. 350 eggs, larvae hatch after 2 weeks and are fed by workers, after a number of skin changes pupation takes place. Full-grown ants hatch soon afterwards depending on temperature. Colonies are 50,000 to 1,000, 000 strong with many queens, workers, and males.

Preferred food:

They are omnivorous, they will feed on organic material in drains and on excreta, wounds, sputum, soiled dressings any organic matter, sweet and high protein foodstuff. They have a wide preference in food, ranging from syrups to fruits, pies, meats, and dead insects. They use carbohydrates primarily for maintenance whereas; protein is primarily required for larval development and egg production by the queens.

Control:

  • Baiting
  • Insecticidal Spraying

 


 

 

Rogers_Ant

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Insect: Hypoponera punctatissima

 

Introduction:

Workers: 2.5- 3.2mm long Queens 3.5-3.8mm long Male 3.4-3.6mm long This species is reddish yellow to dark brown and the sterile workers are wingless. Wings are present in young queens but absent in older insects. The males are also wingless. All sexes are identifiable with a single tall segment in the pedicel and a conspicuous constriction between the first and second segments. Both the female and workers are armed with a sting.

Origins and distribution:

This species was first captured in Britain in 1860 by Henry Squire at an address in Burton Crescent London. Its true distribution today is not really known but many recent reports in the north of England suggest its is spreading quickly. The ant is probably much more widespread in Britain than was at first thought. Although it is sub tropical, it can be found throughout Western Europe and the Canary Islands. This species have been introduced into many temperate areas around the world as a result of commodity trading.

Habitat:

The ant is often reported in greenhouses where they have been found in soil filled pots and boxes, obviously imported and introduced by accident. They will also infest any heated premises such as kitchens, bakeries, and food processing factories. Colonies can exist outdoors in waste tips especially in fermenting refuse. If discovered outdoors the ant prefers sunny locations. Inside buildings the ant prefers warm damp areas such as drains, shower blocks / toilets or process areas. Each nest is usually fairly small of 60 to 100 individuals but when larger numbers of insects are observed this can be misleading, suggesting that there is one large nest. In fact normally there can a number of colonies in close proximity. Nests are usually totally inaccessible therefore control is sometimes difficult. Favoured sites are sub floor areas, wall cavities and gaps behind wall tiles. Their preference to drains and permanently warm wet tiled areas means they are often seen after showers have been in use or shortly after cleaning has taken place.

Behaviour:

Rogers ants do not follow pheromone trails but forage for live prey, killing small insects including pupae, carrying them back to the nest. When leaving the nests to swarm queen ants often head towards light sources such as windows and they can sometimes be found in fly killer catch trays, attracted to ultra violet light.

Breeding:

Where conditions are damp and warm enough females can occur all year long. Swarming takes place in July to September but the males always remain in the nests. Males however do compete in order to mate with queens. Food: This ant feed exclusively on protein including small live and dead insects, they will sting small insects and carry back their victims to nests to feed the colony. Damp areas often support other insect life on which the ants feed. The larvae or grubs can feed themselves on insect material if placed nearby.

General comments:

As most problems are reported in shower and amenity blocks in food factories. The problem is often located behind tiles on shower walls where the ants have taken up residence in numbers. When showers are used, with the subsequent rise in humidity levels, the ants will evacuate in numbers. The control solution in this environment often sounds drastic, builders or maintenance staff need remove all the wall tiles and access is also required beneath the shower tray, the infested section can then be treated with a residual insecticide. With all possible harbourages sealed after treatment, the shower area needs to be re tiled. If this is carried out correctly the infestation is normally cured. It sounds expensive, but this is the only way control will be achieved saving much time with repeated follow up spray treatments. The solution is simple "Find the seat of the infestation" by watching individuals making their way back to the nest in order to ascertain the true location and extent of the colony.

Control:

  • Baiting
  • Insecticidal Spraying

 


 

BITING INSECTS

 

 

Bed Bugs

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Insect: Cimex Lectularius

 

Characteristics

Bed bugs have declined due to better, cleaner living conditions. Bed bugs can be around in the cleanest of homes. They don't transmit disease. They can live for up to a year without food. The omit a stick from glands when disturbed.

Habitat & History

Bedbugs are red/brown; they are about 4mm long and flat. They don't have wings. Their mouth is developed for piercing skin. Bed bugs live on man, they can live up to 1 year without a 'host'. The have glands which can produce a bad smell. Infestations may spread through from other buildings through holes in the walls etc.
The female lays between 200-500 eggs per cycle and the cycle takes 2-4 months to complete – the eggs are laid in crevices of a suitable host.

Control / Treatment

Fumigation/Destroy Nests

 

 


 

 

Bird Flea

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Insect: Ceratophyllus gallinae gallinae

 

Identification:

This is a very small laterally compressed flea up to 2mm in length. It is reddish brown in colour. The eyes and antennae and mouthparts can easily be seen in this flea and it has are a row of 20 or so black spines on the rear of the first thoracic segment. The larva grows to 5mm long and is distinctly segmented.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and common in the UK.

Habitat:

Found in any bird roost or nesting site or where birds frequent.

Behaviour:

It is highly mobile and easily moves through feathers and down.

Breeding:

Several hundred eggs 0.5mm long are laid in batches after a blood meal. The white larva hatches within 10 days and when full-grown they spin a cocoon. This becomes covered in dust and debris. Breeding can be throughout the year depending on shelter and suitable harbourages

Food:

Blood from bird hosts but sometimes it will bite other animals and man especially when their favoured host is not present. Larvae feed on debris of an organic nature in bird nests and roost sites. They cannot complete their development on human blood alone however.

Control:

Nest removal is sometimes the best option but this should only be carried out only after birds have vacated. Thorough cleaning is recommended if practical and appropriate with the application of a residual insecticide to the source and harbourage.
Birds found to be infested need to be treated by a vet.

 

 


 

 

Cat Flea

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Insect: Ctenocephalides felis

 

Identification:

2-3mm long and brown eggs are 0.5mm long oval and pearly white 4-8 eggs laid after blood meal, 1000 in lifetime. Eggs hatch after 10 days Larva 1.5mm long and threadlike.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide.

Habitat:

Often around pets and their bedding, sometimes in disused premises which have been vacated by pets.

Behaviour:

The flea jump huge distances in relation to its size, the adult can move rapidly amongst pet hair and through carpet fibres.

Breeding:

Development is 8-150 days depending on temperature but usually 2-3 weeks. They moult twice growing to 5mm long and have 13 segments. When full grown the larva spins a cocoon, pupation can last months to years.

Food:

Animal and human blood, whilst the larva eat flea droppings and regurgitated food.

Control:

This has to be a thorough approach, pets, bedding, carpets, vacuuming and use of contact insecticide and IGR's. One of the best insecticides is said to be Tenopa IGR/ Insecticide). This is a product that contains Alphacypermethrin and Flufenoxuron. There have been a number of excellent reports on the evident success of this product against fleas and it the recommended product to use in all flea treatments to harbourages. It will control larvae, pupae and eggs especially around carpet edges, under chair cushions etc. The vacuuming up of debris is also important. Treatment of adult fleas on pets (this is the owners responsibility).

 


 

 

Dog Flea

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Insect: Ctenocephalides canis

Identification:

2-3mm long and brown eggs are 0.5mm long oval and pearly white 4-8 eggs laid after blood meal, 1000 in lifetime. Eggs hatch after 10 days Larva 1.5mm long and threadlike.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide.

Habitat:

Often around pets and their bedding, sometimes in disused premises which have been vacated by pets.

Behaviour:

The flea jump huge distances in relation to its size, the adult can move rapidly amongst pet hair and through carpet fibres.

Breeding:

Development is 8-150 days depending on temperature but usually 2-3 weeks. They moult twice growing to 5mm long and have 13 segments. When full grown the larva spins a cocoon, pupation can last months to years.

Food:

Animal and human blood, whilst the larva eat flea droppings and regurgitated food.

Control:

This has to be a thorough approach, pets, bedding, carpets, vacuuming and use of contact insecticide and IGR's. One of the best insecticides is said to be Tenopa IGR/ Insecticide). This is a product that contains Alphacypermethrin and Flufenoxuron. There have been a number of excellent reports on the evident success of this product against fleas and it the recommended product to use in all flea treatments to harbourages. It will control larvae, pupae and eggs especially around carpet edges, under chair cushions etc. The vacuuming up of debris is also important. Treatment of adult fleas on pets (this is the owners responsibility).

 


 

 

Mosquito

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Insect: Culicines and Anophelines spp

Identification:

8 to 10 mm long, wingspan 18 to 20 mm, grey black thorax and abdomen, wings with full vein patterns, long dark legs, well developed piercing mouthparts.
Origins and distribution:
Found Worldwide and this includes much of the temperate World, a number of species are recorded throughout the UK

Habitat:

The mosquito will readily enter buildings attracted by lights and often to seek harbourage, damp alleyways and areas behind buildings in the shade not receiving much sunlight are favoured. Water butts, gutterings and empty containers that fill with water will support breeding colonies.

Behaviour:

Mainly nocturnal, female insects target humans for blood meals.

Breeding:

Eggs laid on the surface of standing often stagnant water but some species prefer salt and others brackish water, the boat shaped eggs are known as rafts and float horizontally, the larvae hatch and are aquatic coming to the surface to breath, larvae moult 4 or 5 times over 4 to 8 weeks, pupation takes place in the water, adults hatch a couple of weeks later. Hibernation takes place in late autumn by the females only, whilst the males are short lived and die prior to winter.

Food:

Males feed on nectar of flowering plants, females bite animals including man or animals for a blood meal.

Control:

Control should be purely barrier methods in screening doors and windows against their possible entry. Treatment of their breeding sites is difficult but the removal of standing water, e.g. rainwater butts and other traps will help. Ultra violet flykillers will attract this species if the barrier methods fail. Fogging / misting will knock down insects on the wing.

 

 


 

COCKROACHES

 

 

German Cockroach

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Insect: Blattella germanica L

 

Identification:

12-15mm, mid brown, with a yellow brown thorax having two dark brown stripes. Long antennae. Wings full length in male but 2/3 length in the female.

Origins and distribution:

World wide and established throughout the UK but primarily in the south of the country.

Habitat:

The insect prefers a warm moist environment, inside tray wash plant, inside switch boxes, motor housings, panels inside machines, fridge motors, conduits etc. The insect is often found in steamers and around the linings of provers, it can also exploit small gaps squeezing into joints. It will take up residence inside drink dispensing machines, optics, beer and drink coolers, hollow legs of tables and equipment. It can sometimes be found behind door seals and in voids. It can swim and will climb smooth surfaces easily. Once established in food catering or manufacturing premises this insect is often difficult to eradicate, this is due to it hiding in inaccessible places. Sometimes when found inside plant and machinery it is not brought under control until the equipment is totally dismantled and cleaned.

Behaviour:

Winged, it can fly but the insect does not often take flight, it usually flies at very high temperatures and RH levels, most flights are in fact fluttering glides.

Breeding:

The female carries the ootheca until hatching, it is often seen hanging out of the abdomen. 4-8 ootheca are produced each containing 30-40 eggs. Incubation is approx 17 days at 30c. There are 6-7 Nymphal stages to adulthood. The longevity of the insect is 128 days for male and 153 for the female.

Food:

Omnivorous including any organic matter including human waste.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Fumigant
  • Trapping

 


 

 

Oriental Cockroach

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Insect: Blatta Orientalis

 

Identification:

17-30 mm, dark brown to black very shiny and very flattened, the female has very reduced wing buds and the male wings are longer to almost the end of the abdomen. They have long flexible antennae.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and widespread throughout the UK.

Habitat:

Mainly in heated buildings, dustbin areas, waste/compactor areas, cellars, boiler houses, ductings, lift shafts. Colonies are often established in drains or services but sometimes in cladding and dead spaces inside processing equipment. They can squeeze into very small cracks and will exploit bad fitting coving and door jams etc. One of the main routes into premises is via laundry suppliers off site, these should always be considered when carrying out supplier auditing.

Behavior:

This species cannot fly but it is very fast running. It cannot climb smooth surfaces.

Breeding:

Ootheca produced 5-10 per female each containing 16/18 eggs, incubation 48 to 80 days at 20°C to 25 °C preferred temp. Nymphal stages 7-10 to adult, life span 60 to 250 days depending on temperature.

Food:

Omnivorous feeding on any organic matter including human waste to soap, candles, paper etc. They are true scavengers.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Gel Bait
  • Fumigant

 


 

CASUAL  INTRUDER PESTS

 

 

Earwigs

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Insect: Forficula Auricularia

 

Characteristics

Earwigs are 8-18mm long.
The female lays eggs under stones and in crevices and will stay with her eggs guarding them.
From time to time she will gently clean the eggs with her mouthparts to prevent fungal infection.
She will continue guarding her young, which look like miniature versions of their parents, until they have grown large enough to fend for themselves.

Habitat & History

They are found all over Europe but have been introduced to many other parts of the world.
Earwigs can be found in damp crevices in houses, gardens and woodland.
Especially on new housing estates.
They feed on decaying plant and animal matter and other insects.

Control / Treatment

Identify entrance points and apply a residual insecticide

 


 

 

Millipedes

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Insect: Tachypodoiulus Niger

Characteristics

They are harmless insects and do not have a poisonous bite, but may protect themselves by giving off offensive odours produced by stink glands.

Habitat & History

They feed mostly on decaying vegetation, although some will consume decaying animal food.
Some species attack plant roots and cause crop damage.
Millipedes locate each other by means of pheromones, which are released by the female.
When a male has located a female, he weaves a small silk pad and deposits a small package of sperm on it.
The female then picks up the package with some special claspers at her rear end.
The Millipede have only 14 legs when they hatch. As they grow they shed their skin and grow new segments and legs.

Control / Treatment

Apply dust if large numbers are found

 


 

 

Woodlice

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Insect: Oniscus app

 

Characteristics

15mm long, usually dark grey – these insects are generally harmless

Habitat & History

Woodlice are found in cracks in the wall, rotting damp leaves, under dead tree bark, round the bottom of trees, under wood stones and bricks, and in flowerpots. The beneficial effects of woodlice far outweigh any damage that they do. However, woodlice have an ill-deserved reputation as pests, mainly because they wander into houses at night, usually to escape saturation with water during wet weather. In winter woodlice burrow down into rotting leaves or the earth, to protect them from the cold.
Spring or summer: adult male and female woodlice mate. They always mate in complete darkness, so you won't be able to see them doing it. She may lay as many as 200 eggs.

Control / Treatment

Woodlice are difficult to control as they can penetrate most materials fairly easily. Fit nylon bristle strips to doors and if necessary apply a residual insecticide.

 


FLIES

 

 

Blowfly

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Insect: Blue Bottles (Calliphora spp) Green Bottles (Lucilia spp) Grey Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga spp)

Identification:

Blue Bottles 11 mm long, wingspan 25mm, bristly body dull metallic blue, Green Bottles bright metallic green. Stiff bluish transparent wings, very large compound eyes. Flesh flies greyish with dark longitudinal stripes and a chequered abdomen.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and throughout the UK.

Habitat:

Meat processing plants, commercial canteens and any food processing factory. They are found in restaurants, cafes, offices and any premises where they have access to suitable food material.

Behaviour:

These flies are fond of sunning themselves on window ledges or on warm exposed surfaces in the summer.

Breeding:

Blue Bottles and Green Bottles flies mate and egg laying commences 4 days later, up to 600 eggs laid in clusters in fresh or older meat, meat products and offal. These hatch out 18-48 hours at 18-20°C game is singled out. They feed for 8-11 days and the larvae moult 3 times, larvae grow to 18mm.They wander off to pupate anything up to 100 metres away preferably in soil and the pupae is approx. 10mm and a dull mahogany brown and at 18-20°C the fly emerges 2 weeks later. The adults live for 35 days. The Grey flesh fly does not lay eggs but deposits the first stage larvae in the preferred food material, usually in a bin or compactor waste areas. The life cycle is rapid taking only 13-25 days to complete.

Food:

Any meat product especially game and bacon products. Flesh flies prefer dead & decaying animal matter and carrion. Green bottles will lay their eggs in decaying matter but also in sheep fleeces especially around the tail if it is soiled, it will open up wounds in animals. Human cadavers sometimes infested in premises where a body has laid undiscovered for a period of time, they are sometimes reported in morgues also. Flesh flies are attracted to dead pigeons, rodents, road kill victims etc. Blue bottles are often seen in butchers and wet fish shops on produce.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Fumigants

 


 

 

Dronefly

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Insect: Enistalis tenax

Identification:

This is a large fly up to 15mm in length with a wingspan of20-25mm.It has a similar appearance to that of the male honeybee, thus the name. The flies head and thorax is black and this is covered in long golden hairs. It only has one pair of wings the vestigial rear pair modified into halteres. The distinctive larva can grow up to 32mm in length; they are whitish in colour and have a very long siphonic breathing tube.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and common in the UK.

Habitat:

The flies are flower pollinators whilst the larvae can be found in stagnant pools, ponds, drains, water butts and ditches. They are commonly found in silage pits, manure heaps especially when very wet.

Behaviour:

The fly is an expert hoverer and can stay motionless in mid air. The larvae sometimes enter buildings at the time of pupation causing great concern with invasion.

Food:

The fly takes pollen and nectar. The larvae feed on organic debris and material in its haunts.

Breeding:

The fly lays eggs in the favoured larval feeding site. The larva migrates up to 30 metres looking for drier sites for pupation.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Fumigants

 


 

 

House Fly

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Insect: Musca domestica

Identification:

6mm long, wingspan of 10mm, grey / black chequered abdomen which is slightly hairy, blackish stripes on thorax, distance between eyes wide in female and narrow in male, vein bends sharply before reaching edge of wing. At rest wings are spread. Larvae are white and opaque and pointed.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and throughout the UK.

Habitat:

A fly found around dustbins, compactors and where there are poor hygiene practices.

Behaviour:

Enters food premises through all openings and exploits bad hygiene practices, alights on light fittings and doorframes, vomits and defecates. Often spotting is visible.

Breeding:

Up to 150 eggs each 1mm long laid in batches at a time in the selected foodstuffs and larvae starts putrefaction that is spread by the adults with bacteria on their bodies. Up to 5 batches are laid in their lifetime, larvae (maggots) hatch in 8 to 48 hours and are 1mm long depending on temperature. The larvae have three moults and reach 12mm in length. The larva then travels some distance to pupate and will crawl up smooth surfaces if moist. It prefers to pupate in the soil and buries itself 7-60cm depending on the medium. The larval skin is cast turning into a puparium, this is 5-6mm long, The adult fly hatches 3 to 4 weeks later. The fly lives for 25-52 days and is found from April to November normally.

Food:

In any high protein material from animal waste to refuse and food material especially if fermenting or rotting, moist material is favoured.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Fumigants

 


 

 

Lesser House Fly

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Insect: Fannia canicularius

Identification:

6mm long with all mm wingspan, grey thorax with 4 longitudinal dark stripes, extensive yellow patch at base of abdomen, at rest wings are folded along back, venation shows 4th vein extending straight to wing margin. The larvae is dull grey-brown and is fairly flat with feathery growths.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide and very common in the UK. especially in rural areas.

Habitat:

These flies mainly breed in poultry manure which the farmers spread on the fields from poultry houses seasonally, this is the reason why numbers of adult flies are found in or around factories and properties if located in a rural area.

Behaviour:

The fly is often seen around flying erratically around light fittings and suspended lamps, some of this behaviour is courtship. This species rests much more than the common housefly.

Breeding:

Approx. 50 eggs are laid in batches when female is 10 days old, they are 1 mm in length they hatch in 24 to 48 hours, larval development 8 days and 3 skin moults, larvae 6mm when full grown, egg to adult normally 3 weeks. The pupae stage lasts from 1-4 weeks.

Food:

All organic matter especially if fermenting. The preference is for decomposing organic matter such as cow or poultry dung, vegetable, fruit or fungal matter; they are able to float in a semi-liquid medium.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Fumigants

 


 

 

Common and German Wasps

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Insect: Vespula Vulgaris, Vespula germanica

Identification:

10 to 20 mm, narrow waist, distinctive banding in bright yellow and black, 2 pairs of membranous wings. Both wasps are very similar to look at.

Origins and distribution:

Common throughout UK, favours bakeries, fruit processors, jam factories, drinks factories and confectioners. Skips and waste containers plus returns trays and empty raw materials containers draw them to premises.

Habitat:

Throughout Europe and widespread across UK.

Behaviour:

A social insect with classes and order, the sterile females are the workers, others take on many different responsibilities in the colony.

Breeding:

Queen emerges from hibernation in mid-April, constructs 10 to 20 chambers and lays eggs in each one, sterile female workers hatch and by late summer the colony reaches 3,000 to 30,000 individuals. Males and new Queens are produced in late summer, males mate with the new Queens and then die. The Queen wasps in turn fly off to find an over winter hibernation site usually inside buildings or hollow trees.

Food:

Any sweet sticky high sugar foodstuff, jam, fruit juices and, meat, carrion including dustbin waste material.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Baits

 


 

Hornet

 

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Insect: Vespa crabo

 

Identification:

Length 23-25mm female and 21-28mm male. Two colour forms exist in Europe. This is a large and robust wasp and the markings are similar to European wasps but it is their sheer size and reddish colouration to the mesothorax that distinguishes them.

Origins and distribution:

Worldwide but localised common in the UK with the major populations tending to be in the fruit growing areas of the country. Somerset, Herefordshire, the Vale of Evesham and Kent have noticeably higher incidences than with other localities.

Habitat:

Oak woods, water meadows and old parks are favoured sometimes close to human habitations.

Behaviour:

A fairly aggressive insect in defence of its nest but it does not normally bother man.

Breeding:

Queens emerge in April and are active until September. Nest construction and the social hierarchy is similar to the German and European or common wasp. New queens over winter in tree stumps and hollow trees. Nests are often in the same location every year but old nests are not used, new ones are built.

Food:

Its principle food preference is soft-bodied insects, caterpillars and flies. The adults visit flowers and take nectar. It visits orchards in the autumn to feed from ripened and fallen fruit.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Baits

 


 

Honey Bee

 

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Insect: Family Apidae

Honey bees are beneficial insects.
Honeybees, both feral (wild) and colonised, are important beneficial insects, not normally considered as pests. They live either in the wild in nests or as colonies in hives kept by beekeepers. In either case they will only sting people if strongly provoked.
Because of their beneficial role every effort should be made to avoid carrying out control treatments against honeybees. Treatment with a pesticide should be considered only as a last resort.

Risks from treated nests.

If foraging non-target honey bees find a nest, which has been treated, they will carry away contaminated honey. This can lead to contamination of honey destined for food use, serious bee kills and the destruction of hives.

 


 

Masonry Bee

 

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Insect: Andrenidae spp

 

Identification:

Pale brown and dark brown abdomen with a mid brown fury thorax and dark brown legs. Curved antennae. 15mm in length

Origins and distribution:

Throughout Europe and common in most of the southern part of the UK.

Habitat:

Soft stonework and masonry in older buildings during the spring and summer months. Sometimes these bees adopt keyholes in old buildings and outbuildings.

Behaviour:

Small burrows excavated in buildings with many individuals living in close proximity but on a solitary basis.

Breeding:

After laying her eggs, the female bee seals and abandons the nest and soon dies, leaving her offspring (larvae) to develop on their own. The burrows are 2-10cm long and are lined with a varnish that the bee produces from its salivary glands. The burrows are filled pollen and nectar to a depth of 1cm. A single egg is deposited and the larva feed on the food material until full grown, it then pupates and over winters until the spring before hatching.

Food:

The adult bee feeds on pollen and nectar.

Control:

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Electronic Fly Killers
  • Baits

 


 

 

Stored Product Insects


Insects

There are dozens of different stored product insects that can affect storage units ranging from domestic warehouses to industrial grain silos. Infestations can lead to loss, damage and eventual destruction of stock, so swift intervention is advised in the event of suspicion of an infestation.
Most stored product insects can be grouped into three classifications:

Stored Product Insects - Beetles

  • Biscuit Beetle
  • Broad Horned Flour Beetle
  • Cadelle Beetle
  • Cigarette Beetle
  • Coffee Bean Weevil
  • Confused Flour Beetle
  • Dried Bean Weevil
  • Dried Fruit Beetle
  • Flat Grain Beetle
  • Grain Weevil
  • Khapra Beetle
  • Lesser Grain Borer
  • Merchant Grain Beetle
  • Red Legged Ham Beetle
  • Rice Weevil
  • Saw Toothed Grain Beetle
  • Small Eyed Flour Beetle

Stored Product Insects - Moths

  • Angoumois Grain Moth
  • Corn Grain Moth
  • Flour Moth
  • Indian Meal Moth
  • Meal Moth
  • Rice Moth
  • Tropical Warehouse Moth
  • Warehouse Moth

Stored Product Insects - Textile Pests

  • Brown House Moth
  • Case Bearing Clothes Moth
  • Common Clothes Moth
  • Fur Beetle
  • Tapestry Moth
  • Varied Carpet Beetle
  • White Shouldered House Moth

Control Methods:

Although the nature and scale of the infestation can vary, control methods are similar and include

  • Insecticidal Spraying
  • Fumigant
  • Electronic Killers (for certain species)

Examples of Some Species:

Larder Beetle

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House Mite

 

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Warehouse Moth

 

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Flour Beetle

 

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